In The Name Of Allah Most Gracious Most Merciful
Assalaamu alaykum wa rahmatuallahi wa barakatuhu
 

73 Sects In Islam

The Ummah will split up into seventy-three sects
Model Behavior of the Prophet (Kitab Al-Sunnah)
Dawud :: Book 40 : Hadith 4579 Narrated AbuHurayrah:
The Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) said: The Jews were split up into seventy-one or seventy-two sects; and the Christians were split up into seventy one or seventy-two sects; and my community will be split up into seventy-three sects.

Reported by Awf ibn Malik Al Ashja'l:
The Prophet said, "How will you be O Awf when this nation is divided into 73 sects. One sect will be in Paradise and the rest in Hell."
I asked: "When will this be O Messenger of Allah?"
He answered, saying: "When the police increase and slave girls take authority, and when the lambs (weak authorities) sit on the pulpit, and when the Qu'ran is used as flutes and mosques decorated and the spoils of war manipulated, and the obligatory charity becomes an excessive debt, and trust is taken like spoils of war, and religious study is not for the Sake of Allah and when husbands obey their wives, and disobeys his mother, and banishes his father, and the last of this nation curses the beginning of it, and when the tribe is mastered by a deviator, and the leader of the nation is the worst of them and a man is treated generously to avoid his evil. Upon that day it will happen and men will run to Syria to the City of Damascus, which is one of the best cities in Syria that protects them from their enemy ... " I asked: "Will Syria be opened?"
He answered: "Yes, soon then after its opening the trials will start and a dark and dusty trial will come. Trials will follow one another until a man from the Family of my House called the Mahdi comes. If you reach him, follow him and be among those who are guided."(At-Tabarani)
 

All will go to hell except the one to which my companions belong
 Al-Tirmidhi HadithHadith 171 Narrated byAbdullah ibn Amr
Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said: There will befall my Ummah exactly (all those) evils which befell the people of Isra'il, so much so that if there was one amongst them who openly committed fornication with his mother there will be among my Ummah one who will do that, and if the people of Isra'il were fragmented into seventy-two sects my Ummah will be fragmented into seventy-three sects. All of them will be in Hell Fire except one sect. They (the Companions) said: Allah's Messenger, which is that? Whereupon he said: It is one to which I and my companions belong.
Transmitted by Tirmidhi.

Deviants will be guided by desire
‘The People of the Two Scriptures divided into seventy-two sects. This Ummah will divide into seventy-three sects, all in the Fire except one, that is, the Jama`ah. Some of my Ummah will be guided by desire, like one who is infected by rabies; no vein or joint will be saved from these desires.’’”

This hadith was also narrated by Abu Dawood (2/503), Ahmad (4/102) and al-Haakim (1/128) among others, with similar wording but with the following addition;

Large Community [Jama`ah]Will Go To Jannah

ثنتان وسبعون في النار. قيل: يا رسول الله
من هم؟ قال: الجماعة


“Seventy two in hell fire and one in the Jannah: that is the 'Jama`ah.'”

The hadith mentions the word “Firqah”; this word is a lafz mushtaraq, or homonym. It is a word, which has many meanings. Allah (Subhanahu wa ta’aala) mentions this word in different contexts in the Quran;


وَمَا كَانَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ لِيَنفِرُواْ كَآفَّةً فَلَوْلاَ نَفَرَ
مِن كُلِّ فِرْقَةٍ مِّنْهُمْ طَآئِفَةٌ لِّيَتَفَقَّهُواْ فِي الدِّينِ
وَلِيُنذِرُواْ قَوْمَهُمْ إِذَا رَجَعُواْ إِلَيْهِمْ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَحْذَرُون
َ

9:122 Nor should the believers all go forth together: if a contingent from every expedition remained behind they could devote themselves to studies in religion and admonish the people when they return to them that thus they (may learn) to guard themselves (against evil).

Here, the word firqah is used to mean group or expedition.


Pronounced Takfir/Labelling unbeliever
2:113 The Jews say: "The Christians have naught (to stand) upon"; and the Christians say: "The Jews have naught (to stand) upon." Yet they (profess to) study the (same) Book. Like unto their word is what those say who know not but Allah will judge between them in their quarrel on the Day of Judgment.

*Note:Jews Pronunced Takfir on Christians because they believed in Isa alai salaa /Jesus and Christians pronounced Takfir because Jews did not believed in Isa alai salaam/Jesus.

Now Lets Analyse How Jews And Christians Divided
2:253 Those apostles We endowed with gifts some above others: to one of them Allah spoke; others He raised to degrees (of honor); to Jesus the son of Mary We gave clear (Signs) and strengthened him with the Holy Spirit. If Allah had so willed succeeding generations would not have fought among each other after clear (Signs) had come to them but they (chose) to wrangle some believing and others rejecting. If Allah had so willed they would not have fought each other; but Allah fulfilleth His plan.

3:19 The Religion before Allah is Islam (submission to His will): nor did the people of the Book dissent therefrom except through envy of each other after knowledge had come to them. But if any deny the Signs of Allah Allah is swift in calling to account.


Deviance Of Jews
3:78. And verily, among them is a party who distort the Book with their tongues (as they read), so that you may think it is from the Book, but it is not from the Book, and they say: "This is from Allâh," but it is not from Allâh; and they speak a lie against Allâh while they know it.
*Note:Here again the word firqah is used, but in this context, it is something that is condemned, for the action they carried out was distorting the revelation.So the context will indicate what the meaning is of the word being used.

4:160. For the wrong­doing of the Jews, We made unlawful to them certain good foods which has been lawful to them, and for their hindering many from Allâh's Way;
9:30 The Jews call Uzair a son of Allah and the Christians call Christ the son of Allah. That is a saying from their mouths; (in this) they but imitate what the unbelievers of old used to say. Allah's curse be on them: how they are deluded away from the truth!
*Note:They called Uzair son of Allah


2:87 We gave Moses the Book and followed him up with a succession of Apostles; We gave Jesus the son of Mary clear (Signs) and strengthened him with the holy spirit. Is it that whenever there comes to you an Apostle with what ye yourselves desire not ye are puffed up with pride? Some ye called impostors and others ye slay!
*Note:Jews rejected Isa alai salaam /JESUS


5:13 But because of their breach of their Covenant We cursed them and made their hearts grow hard: they change the words from their (right) places and forget a good part of the Message that was sent them nor wilt thou cease to find them barring a few ever bent on (new) deceits: but forgive them and overlook (their misdeeds): for Allah loveth those who are kind.
*Note;They forgot good part of the book
 

Deviance Of Christians

5:14 From those too who call themselves Christians We did take a Covenant but they forgot a good part of the Message that was sent them: so We estranged them with enmity and hatred between the one and the other to the Day of Judgment. And soon will Allah show them what it is they have done.
*Note:They forgot good part of the message

4:171 O people of the Book! commit no excesses in your religion: nor say of Allah aught but truth. Christ Jesus the son of Mary was (no more than) an Apostle of Allah and His Word which He bestowed on Mary and a Spirit proceeding from Him: so believe in Allah and His Apostles. Say not "Trinity": desist: it will be better for you: for Allah is One Allah: glory be to him: (for Exalted is He) above having a son. To Him belong all things in the heavens and on earth. And enough is Allah as a Disposer of affairs.
*Note:They believed in Trinity


5:72 They do blaspheme who say: "Allah is Christ the son of Mary." But said Christ: "O children of Israel! worship Allah my Lord and your Lord." Whoever joins other gods with Allah Allah will forbid him the garden and the Fire will be his abode. There will for the wrong-doers be no one to help.
73 They do blaspheme who say: Allah is one of three in a Trinity: for there is no god except One Allah. If they desist not from their word (of blasphemy) verily a grievous penalty will befall the blasphemers among them.
*Note:They believed Allah is christ the son of Mary

9:31 They take their priests and their anchorites to be their lords in derogation of Allah and (they take as their Lord) Christ the son of Mary; Yet they were commanded to worship but one Allah: there is no god but He. Praise and glory to him: (far is He) from having the parents they associate (with him).
*Note:They invented priesthood

57:27 Then in their wake We followed them up with (others of) Our apostles: We sent after them Jesus the son of Mary and bestowed on him the Gospel; and We ordained in the hearts of those who followed him Compassion and Mercy. But the monasticism which they invented for themselves We did not prescribe for them: (We commanded) only the seeking for the Good pleasure of Allah; but that they did not foster as they should have done. Yet We bestowed on those among them who believed their (due) reward but many of them are rebellious transgressors.
*Note:They invented monasticism

 

Solution for Apostacy

Division Due To Apostacy Was Death Even In Musa alai salaa's time,its the same in Present times.For ex Qadianis,Submitters,Nation of Islam will be killed in Islamic state.

20:85 (Allah) said: "We have tested thy people in thy absence: the Samiri has led them astray."
86 So Moses returned to his people in state of indignation and sorrow. He said: "O my people! did not your Lord make a handsome promise to you? Did then the promise seem to you long (in coming)? Or did ye desire that Wrath should descend from your Lord on you and so ye broke your promise to me?"
87 They said: "We broke not the promise to thee as far as lay in our power: but we were made to carry the weight of the ornaments of the (whole) people and we threw them (into the fire) and that was what the Samiri suggested.
88 "Then he brought out (of the fire) before the (people) the image of a calf: it seemed to low: so they said: `This is your god and the god of Moses but (Moses) has forgotten!' "
89 Could they not see that it could not return them a word (for answer) and that it had no power either to harm them or to do them good?
90 Aaron had already before this said to them: "O my people! ye are being tested in this: for verily your Lord is (Allah) Most Gracious: so follow me and obey my command."
91 They had said: "We will not abandon this cult but we will devote ourselves to it until Moses returns to us.
92 (Moses) said: " O Aaron! what kept thee back when thou sawest them going wrong
93 "From following me? Didst thou then disobey my order?"
94 (Aaron) replied: "O son of my mother! seize (me not) by my beard nor by (the hair of) my head! Truly I feared lest thou shouldst say `Thou hast caused a division among the Children of Israel and thou didst not respect my word!'"

2:54 And remember Moses said to his people: "O my people! Ye have indeed wronged yourselves by your worship of the calf so turn (in repentance) to your Maker and slay yourselves (the wrong-doers); that will be better for you in the sight of your Maker." Then He turned toward you (in forgiveness); for He is Oft-returning Most Merciful.


Conclusion

With respect to the hadith, Allah's Messenger (SalAllahu alaihi wasallam) explains to us how the Jews were divided into seventy-one sects or firqah, and the Christians were similarly divided into seventy-two firqah. Then he (SalAllahu alaihi wasallam) states that this Ummah will divide into seventy-three sects and that all but the one who follows what he (SalAllahu alaihi wasallam) and his companions followed will be in hell.This does not mean being in hell just like a kafir will be in hell as long as that muslims has not fallen out of the fold of Islam.


Upon studying the areas in which they disagreed are Two

1  They disagreed in the fundamentals of their Deen. They disagreed on their Prophets, the Day of Judgement, the Unity of Allah, resurrection, heaven and hell, etc. These are disagreements on the foundations of belief. Since Allah (Subhanahu wa ta’aala) and His Messenger (SalAllahu alaihi wasallam) ordered us not to divide as the People of the Book did, then we are to avoid that area which their disagreement occurred in. This means that disagreement on the fundamentals of the Deen is condemned.

2.They also disagreed in their respective books ,forgot good part of the book,verbally distored the book ,they invented priesthood & monasticism,

Allah says to Muslims..

وَاعْتَصِمُواْ بِحَبْلِ اللّهِ جَمِيعاً وَلاَ تَفَرَّقُواْ

3:103 And hold fast all together by the rope which Allah (stretches out for you) and be not divided among yourselves; and remember with gratitude Allah's favor on you; for ye were enemies and He joined your hearts in love so that by His grace ye became brethren; and ye were on the brink of the pit of fire and He saved you from it. Thus doth Allah make his signs clear to you: that ye may be guided.

Allah (Subhanahu wa ta’aala) orders the Muslims to hold tight and not let go of the rope of Allah (Subhanahu wa ta’aala) and not to divide.

'The rope of Allah'

Ibn Masood (ra), Ali bin Abi Talib (ra), and Abu Saeed Al-Kuddrri (ra) said it is the Qur'an. Others said it is the Deen of Allah (Subhanahu wa ta’aala). Others like Ibnul Mubaarak said it is the Jama’ah.

'And divide not'

At-Tabari said; “…and do not disperse away from the Deen of Allah and His covenant which he took from you in His Book: that you should be together in obeying Him and His Messenger (SalAllahu alaihi wasallam).”

Ibn Katheer said; “He ordered them to stay in the Jama`ah and not to divide.”

Al-Qurtubi said; “Do not divide as the Jews and the Christians in their Deen…and it could mean do not separate based on your desires and interests.”

Therefore, the disagreement that Muslims are not allowed to have is in the fundamentals of their Deen, not in its branches. This is due to several reasons:

The texts that condemn the disagreement order the Muslims not to disagree like the People of the Book who disagreed in the fundamentals ,they also disagreed in other aspects regarding their books.So Muslims must avoid this.

The Sunnah of the Messenger (SalAllahu alaihi wasallam) permitted disagreements in the branches or Furoo`.

1) The disagreement that existed among the Sahabah were in the Furoo', not in the Usul (foundations of the Deen). No condemnation was made about such disagreements in the Furoo’.

2) The followers of the Companions (Tabi'een), the generation that followed them, and the scholars of the Salaf (predecessors) accepted the disagreement in the Furoo’ but not in the Usul ud-Deen (foundations of the Deen).

So, for example, Ash-Shafi'i (ra) states in his book Ar-Risalah; “Disagreement is of two types: One that is Haram and the other is not. Everything that Allah established by the definite proof (Hujjah) in His book or clearly stated by His Prophet is Haram to disagree over by the one who knows of it. As for that which can be understood differently or by analogy, since the text can bare it…there is room for [disagreement] unlike in the clearly stated.”

Ibn Taymiyah (ra) in his book al-Fatawa al-Kubra, Vol. 20, p.256 stated; “Then it [the texts] are divided to: that which is definite in its dalalah (meaning). Its definiteness is established in its chain [of narrators] (Sanad) as well as in its contents (Mata), where we are sure that Allah's Messenger (SalAllahu alaihi wasallam) said it and meant that meaning. The other which is indefinite in its dalalah (meaning). As for the first, it must be believed in and acted according to. This is indisputable among the scholars in general. The scholars might disagree however in some news whether their chains are definite (Qat’i) or not and whether their meaning is definite or not. An example of such disagreement is with regard to the news transmitted by the one (Khabarul Wahid) that is accepted by the Ummah or the one that the Ummah has agreed to act upon.”

The Sahabah (ra) had disagreed in matters, which were related to the branches of the Deen, but they remained united on the foundations of the Deen. Subsequently, the great Mujtahideen of Islam differed on many aspects of the Deen, but they were again in the branches. So the “firqah” which are punished in hell fire, are not those groups which have these legitimate differences. Therefore, those who follow a particular Madhab, such as the Shafi’i, Hanafi, Hanbali, Maliki


The Hanafi scholar, Ibn Abideen stated this fact; “There is no doubt in the disbelief (kufr) of those that falsely accuse Sayyida Aisha (ra) of adultery, believe that Sayyidina Ali (ra) was God or that the angel Jibril mistakenly descended with the revelation (wahy) on the Messenger of Allah (SalAllahu alaihi wasallam), etc. which is apparent kufr and contrary to the teachings of the Qur'an.” [Radd al-Muhtar, 4/453].

Ibn Abidin continues; "It is difficult to make a general statement and judge all the Shia to be non-believers, as the scholars have agreed on the deviation and defection of the deviated sects."
Those who follow the schools of thought from the Shia like the Ja’fari or Zaidi, are not labelled with disbelief because their aqeeda is not kufr,not all have kufr Aqeeda which could makes them apostates.After close scrutiny of their beliefs its clear ,they all are not kafir but deviants that is why they are allowed to perform Hajj.The Quranites/khawarijites/hadith rejectors are also not disbelievers & and other sects ,these are all  considered deviants but not Non-muslims.Some have apostaised i.e left the fold of Islam such as the Qadiani, who claimed Prophethood after Muhammad (SalAllahu alaihi wasallam), or those Alawi, who claim Ali (ra) to be god incarnate (may Allah protect us from such deviation), or those who deny the punishment in the Ahkirah,destiny,also Submitters,Nation of Islam etc. Any group that contradicts the definite text of the Qur’an, falls outside the fold of Islam.


Even the Shia scholar of the Qur’an, Allama Muhammad Hussein Tabatabai, writes in his very famous exegesis, Tafseer-ul-Meezan, 12th edition, page 109, published in Iran, regarding the completeness of the Qur'an; “The Qur’an, which Almighty Allah descended on Prophet Muhammad (SalAllahu alaihi wasallam), is protected from any change.”

The Qur’an found in the mosques, throughout the world, whether in Karachi, Tehran, Cairo, Madinah, or Algiers is one.

 

How to treat Innovators:
There must be room for dialogue with them.There must be room for inviting them to right aqeedah,teaching right beliefs & guiding them to sunnah.But he should hate them for the sake of Allaah.One should hate the innovators for their innovations.One should hate the sins of the sinners. But his hatred for the kuffaar should be greater, while calling them to Allaah and striving to guide them, acting in accordance with all the shar’i evidence. So he should hate the innovator in accordance with the degree of his innovation, so long as it does not imply kufr, and he should hate the sinner in accordance with the degree of his sin, but he should also love him for the sake of Allaah in accordance with the degree of his Islam and faith. From this we know that shunning depends on the situation. 
 
Example from Ali Radiallatala anhu
 
 Khawrijites were allowed to live in Ali r.a Khilafah but they were forbidden to propagate their deviant Aqeedah.As long as they obeyed the laws they were allowed to live in Khilafah.This proofs deviants and misguided ones were allowed to live nor was Takfeer declared on them legitimatizing their killing.
 

 

‘Ali ibn Abi Taalib said concerning the Khawaarij: “They have three rights over us: that we should not initiate fighting with them so long as they do not fight us; that we should not prevent them from entering the mosques of Allaah to mention His name therein; and that we should not deny the booty to them so long as they have fought alongside us.”

Narrated by Ibn Abi Shaybah in al-Musannaf (7/562) with a hasan isnaad. 

 

Being cautious with innovators.

 
Example from Ali Radiallatala anhu
 
 Khawrijites were allowed to live in Ali r.a Khilafah but they were forbidden to propagate their deviant Aqeedah.As long as they obeyed the laws they were allowed to live in Khilafah.This proofs deviants and misguided ones were allowed to live nor was Takfeer declared on them legitimatizing their killing.
 

‘Ali ibn Abi Taalib said concerning the Khawaarij: “They have three rights over us: that we should not initiate fighting with them so long as they do not fight us; that we should not prevent them from entering the mosques of Allaah to mention His name therein; and that we should not deny the booty to them so long as they have fought alongside us.” Narrated by Ibn Abi Shaybah in al-Musannaf (7/562) with a hasan isnaad. 

 
 
It is reported that Al-Fudayl b. ‘Ayyâd – Allâh have mercy on him – said:
Verily, Allâh has angels who seek out the circles of remembrance [of Allâh], so be careful who you sit with; make sure it is not with an adherent of bid’ah, for Allâh does not look at them. And the sign of nifâq (hypocrisy in faith) is that a man mingles with an adherent of bid’ah.
Ibn Battah, Al-Ibânah Al-Kubrâ 1:460

Muslims are single brotherhood.

Allah (Subhanahu wa ta’aala) states;

إِنَّ هَذِهِ أُمَّتُكُمْ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً وَأَنَا رَبُّكُمْ فَاعْبُدُونِ

“Verily, this brotherhood of yours is a single brotherhood, and I am your Lord and Cherisher: therefore serve Me (and no other)” [TMQ Al-Anbiyah: 92]
 

 Messenger of Allah (SalAllahu alaihi wasallam) taught us,

المسلم أخ المسلم ، لا يظلمه ولا يخذله ولا يحقره

“The Muslim is a brother of another Muslim, he doesn't oppress him, neither does he hand him over to the enemy, he doesn't disappoint him, nor does he humiliate him.”

Allah (Subhanahu wa ta’aala) states;

هُوَ سَمَّاكُمُ الْمُسْلِمينَ

22:78 And strive in His cause as ye ought to strive (with sincerity and under discipline): He has chosen you and has imposed no difficulties on you in religion; it is the cult of your father Abraham. It is He Who has named you Muslims both before and in this (Revelation); that the Apostle may be a witness for you and ye be witnesses for mankind! So establish regular Prayer give regular Charity and hold fast to Allah! He is your Protector the Best to protect and the Best to help!

Any disagreement which exists, is something which can be referred to the divine texts,

فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ

4;59 O ye who believe! obey Allah and obey the Apostle and those charged with authority among you. If ye differ in anything among yourselves refer it to Allah and His Apostle if ye do believe in Allah and the Last Day: that is best and most suitable for final determination.

وَالَّذينَ كَفَرُواْ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاء بَعْضٍ إِلاَّ تَفْعَلُوهُ تَكُن فِتْنَةٌ فِي الأَرْضِ وَفَسَادٌ كَبِي

8:73 The unbelievers are protectors one of another: unless ye do this (protect each other) there would be tumult and oppression on earth and great mischief.

Allah Knows Best